Tuesday, 21st May 2019

Genome Dynamics and Function

          Viral proteins that modify gene expression







Luis Carrasco







Research summary:

Our research group is studying different viral proteins that are harmful for mammalian cells during viral replication. We are also analysing the mechanisms that regulate translation of cellular and viral mRNAs. We have focused our attention on two groups of cytopathogenic viral proteins: proteases and viroporins. In addition, we have devoted part of our research efforts to elucidate the presence of fungal infections as potential cause of several human diseases of unknown ethiology. Viral proteins. Recently, we have revised the different existing viroporins and their mode of action. These proteins are encoded by a variety of viruses and exhibit adverse effects on several cellular functions. The main activity of viroporins during the virus life cycle is to promote the exit of new virus particles from infected cells (Figure 1).

Our group has dedicated particular attention to the study of picornavirus and HIV proteases. We have examined the effect of these proteases on translation of several mRNAs and the correlation with the hydrolysis of different translation factors. Notably, we have found that picornavirus proteases 2A and L are able to confer independence for eIF2 during the translation of viral mRNAs.

Regulation of translation. We have described that some viral mRNAs are translated by a dual mechanism and require different initiation factors according to the context of their translation. Sindbis virus constitutes a good model system for these studies. Translation of the subgenomic mRNA from this virus does not utilize several initiation factors. Recently, we have described the eIF4A independence for the translation of this subgenomic mRNA in the infected cells, but this factor is necessary for translation in cell free systems. At present, we are carrying out different constructs that modify the structure of this subgenomic mRNA to determine with more precision its mechanism of translation.


 Fig01-300 ----

Viroporins promote the budding of new virus particles from cellular membranes.




    • Sánchez-Martínez, S., Madan, V., Carrasco, L. and Nieva, J.L. Membrane-active peptides derived from picornavirus 2B viroporin. Current Protein Pept. Sci. 13, 632-643 (2012).
    • Pisa, D., Alonso, R. and Carrasco, L. (2011) Fungal infection in a patient with multiple sclerosis. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.30, 1173-1180.
    • Castelló, A., Alvarez, E. and Carrasco, L. (2011) The multifaceted poliovirus 2A protease. Regulation of gene expression by picornavirus proteases. J. Biomed. Biotechnol. 2011:369648.
    • Welnowska, E., Sanz, M.A., Redondo, N. and Carrasco, L. (2011) Translation of viral mRNA without active eIF2: the case of picornaviruses. PLos One, 6(7), e22230
    • Alvarez, E., Castelló, A., Carrasco, L. and Izquierdo, J.M. (2011) Alternative splicing, a new target to block cellular gene expression by poliovirus 2A protease. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 414, 142-147.


Doctoral theses:

Natalia Redondo Sevillano (2012). Requerimiento de factores de iniciación para la traducción de mRNAs de picornavirus. Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. Luís Carrasco y Vanesa Madan y Miguel Ángel Sanz.

Ewelina Welnowska (2012).Independencia de factores de iniciación en la traducción de los mRNAs virales. Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. Luís Carrasco/Alfredo Castelló.

NOTE! This site uses cookies and similar technologies.

If you not change browser settings, you agree to it. Learn more

I understand


What are cookies?

A cookie is a file that is downloaded to your computer when you access certain web pages. Cookies allow a web page, among other things, to store and retrieve information about the browsing habits of a user or their equipment and, depending on the information they contain and the way they use their equipment, they can be used to recognize the user.

Types of cookies

Classification of cookies is made according to a series of categories. However, it is necessary to take into account that the same cookie can be included in more than one category.

  1. Cookies according to the entity that manages them

    Depending on the entity that manages the computer or domain from which the cookies are sent and treat the data obtained, we can distinguish:

    • Own cookies: those that are sent to the user's terminal equipment from a computer or domain managed by the editor itself and from which the service requested by the user is provided.
    • Third party cookies: those that are sent to the user's terminal equipment from a computer or domain that is not managed by the publisher, but by another entity that processes the data obtained through the cookies. When cookies are installed from a computer or domain managed by the publisher itself, but the information collected through them is managed by a third party, they cannot be considered as own cookies.

  2. Cookies according to the period of time they remain activated

    Depending on the length of time that they remain activated in the terminal equipment, we can distinguish:

    • Session cookies: type of cookies designed to collect and store data while the user accesses a web page. They are usually used to store information that only is kept to provide the service requested by the user on a single occasion (e.g. a list of products purchased).
    • Persistent cookies: type of cookies in which the data is still stored in the terminal and can be accessed and processed during a period defined by the person responsible for the cookie, which can range from a few minutes to several years.

  3. Cookies according to their purpose

    Depending on the purpose for which the data obtained through cookies are processed, we can distinguish between:

    • Technical cookies: those that allow the user to navigate through a web page, platform or application and the use of different options or services that exist in it, such as controlling traffic and data communication, identifying the session, access to restricted access parts, remember the elements that make up an order, perform the purchase process of an order, make a registration or participation in an event, use security elements during navigation, store content for the broadcast videos or sound or share content through social networks.
    • Personalization cookies: those that allow the user to access the service with some predefined general characteristics based on a series of criteria in the user's terminal, such as the language, the type of browser through which the user accesses the service, the regional configuration from where you access the service, etc.
    • Analytical cookies: those that allow the person responsible for them to monitor and analyse the behaviour of the users of the websites to which they are linked. The information collected through this type of cookies is used in the measurement of the activity of the websites, applications or platforms, and for the elaboration of navigation profiles of the users of said sites, applications and platforms, in order to introduce improvements in the analysis of the data of use made by the users of the service.

Cookies used on our website

The CBMSO website uses Google Analytics. Google Analytics is a simple and easy to use tool that helps website owners to measure how users interact with the content of the site. You can consult more information about the cookies used by Google Analitycs in this link.

Acceptance of the Cookies Policy

The CBMSO assumes that you accept the use of cookies if you continue browsing, considering that it is a conscious and positive action from which the user's consent is inferred. In this regard, you are previously informed that such behaviour will be interpreted that you accept the installation and use of cookies.

Knowing this information, it is possible to carry out the following actions:

How to modify the configuration of cookies

Using your browser you can restrict, block or delete cookies from any web page. In each browser the process is different, here we show you links on this particular of the most used browsers: