Representative publications

Efficient production of isomelezitose by a glucosyltransferase activity in Metschnikowia reukaufii cell extracts
Martin Garcia‐Gonzalez, Francisco J. Plou, Fadia V. Cervantes, Miguel Remacha, Ana Poveda, Jesús Jiménez‐Barbero, Maria Fernandez‐Lobato

Metschnikowia reukaufii is a widespread yeast able to grow in the plants’ floral nectaries, an environment of extreme conditions with sucrose concentrations exceeding 400 g l−1, which led us into the search for enzymatic activities involved in this sugar use/transformation. New oligosaccharides were produced by transglucosylation processes employing M. reukaufii cell extracts in overload‐sucrose reactions. These products were purified and structurally characterized by MS‐ESI and NMR techniques. The reaction mixture included new sugars showing a great variety of glycosidic bonds including α‐(1→1), α‐(1→3) and α‐(1→6) linkages. The main product synthesized was the trisaccharide isomelezitose, whose maximum concentration reached 81 g l−1, the highest amount reported for any unmodified enzyme or microbial extract. In addition, 51 g l−1 of the disaccharide trehalulose was also produced. Both sugars show potential nutraceutical and prebiotic properties. Interestingly, the sugar mixture obtained in the biosynthetic reactions also contained oligosaccharides such as esculose, a rare trisaccharide with no previous NMR structure elucidation, as well as erlose, melezitose and theanderose. All the sugars produced are naturally found in honey. These compounds are of biotechnological interest due to their potential food, cosmeceutical and pharmaceutical applications.

Genes and Variants Underlying Human Congenital Lactic Acidosis—From Genetics to Personalized Treatment
Irene Bravo-Alonso, Rosa Navarrete, Ana Isabel Vega, Pedro Ruíz-Sala, María Teresa García Silva, Elena Martín-Hernández, Pilar Quijada-Fraile, Amaya Belanger-Quintana, Sinziana Stanescu, María Bueno, Isidro Vitoria, Laura Toledo, María Luz Couce, Inmaculada García-Jiménez, Ricardo Ramos-Ruiz, Miguel Ángel Martín, Lourdes R. Desviat, Magdalena Ugarte, Celia Pérez-Cerdá, Begoña Merinero, Belén Pérez, Pilar Rodríguez-Pombo

Congenital lactic acidosis (CLA) is a rare condition in most instances due to a range of inborn errors of metabolism that result in defective mitochondrial function. Even though the implementation of next generation sequencing has been rapid, the diagnosis rate for this highly heterogeneous allelic condition remains low. The present work reports our group’s experience of using a clinical/biochemical analysis system in conjunction with genetic findings that facilitates the taking of timely clinical decisions with minimum need for invasive procedures. The system’s workflow combines different metabolomics datasets and phenotypic information with the results of clinical exome sequencing and/or RNA analysis. The system’s use detected genetic variants in 64% of a cohort of 39 CLA-patients; these variants, 14 of which were novel, were found in 19 different nuclear and two mitochondrial genes. For patients with variants of unknown significance, the genetic analysis was combined with functional genetic and/or bioenergetics analyses in an attempt to detect pathogenicity. Our results warranted subsequent testing of antisense therapy to rescue the abnormal splicing in cultures of fibroblasts from a patient with a defective GFM1 gene. The discussed system facilitates the diagnosis of CLA by avoiding the need to use invasive techniques and increase our knowledge of the causes of this condition.

Micropattern-based platform as a physiologically relevant model to study epithelial morphogenesis and nephrotoxicity
Minerva Bosch-Forte, Alejo E. Rodríguez-Fraticelli, Gonzalo Herranz, Mariam Hachimi, María D. Barea, Joanne Young, Benoit Ladoux, Fernando Martín-Belmonte

Tubulogenesis in epithelial organs often initiates with the acquisition of apicobasal polarity, giving rise to the formation of small lumens that expand and fuse to generate a single opened cavity. In this study, we present a micropattern-based device engineered to generate epithelial tubes through a process that recapitulates in vivo tubule morphogenesis. Interestingly, tubulogenesis in this device is dependent on microenvironmental cues such as cell confinement, extracellular matrix composition, and substrate stiffness, and our set-up specifically allows the control of these extracellular conditions. Additionally, proximal tubule cell lines growing on micropatterns express higher levels of drug transporters and are more sensitive to nephrotoxicity. These tubes display specific morphological defects that can be linked to nephrotoxicity, which would be helpful to predict potential toxicity when developing new compounds. This device, with the ability to recapitulate tube formation in vitro, has emerged as a powerful tool to study the molecular mechanisms involved in organogenesis and, by being more physiologically relevant than existing cellular models, becomes an innovative platform to conduct drug discovery assays.

An mRNA-binding channel in the ES6S region of the translation 48S-PIC promotes RNA unwinding and scanning
Irene Díaz-López, René Toribio, Juan José Berlanga, Iván Ventoso

Loading of mRNA onto the ribosomal 43S pre-initiation complex (PIC) and its subsequent scanning require the removal of the secondary structure of the by RNA helicases such as eIF4A. However, the topology and mechanics of the scanning complex bound to mRNA (48S-PIC) and the influence of its solvent-side composition on the scanning process are poorly known. Here, we found that the ES6S region of the 48S-PIC constitutes an extended binding channel for eIF4A-mediated unwinding of mRNA and scanning. Blocking ES6S inhibited the cap-dependent translation of mRNAs that have structured 5′ UTRs (including G-quadruplexes), many of which are involved in signal transduction and growth, but it did not affect IRES-driven translation. Genome-wide analysis of mRNA translation revealed a great diversity in ES6S-mediated scanning dependency. Our data suggest that mRNA threading into the ES6S region makes scanning by 48S PIC slower but more processive. Hence, we propose a topological and functional model of the scanning 48S-PIC.

Analysis of mRNA processing at whole transcriptome level, transcriptomic profile and genome sequence refinement of Trypanosoma cruzi
Francisco Callejas-Hernández, Ángel Gutierrez-Nogues, Alberto Rastrojo, Núria Gironès, Manuel Fresno

The genomic sequence of Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan causative of Chagas disease was published more than a decade ago. However, due to their complexity, its complete haploid predicted sequence and therefore its genetic repertoire remains unconfirmed. In this work, we have used RNAseq data to improve the previous genome assembly of Sylvio X10 strain and to define the complete transcriptome at trypomastigote stage (mammalian stage). A total of 22,977 transcripts were identified, of which more than half could be considered novel as they did not match previously annotated genes. Moreover, for the first time in T. cruzi, we are providing their relative abundance levels. We have identified that Sylvio X10 trypomastigotes exhibit a predominance of surface protein genes, specifically those encoding trans-sialidase and mucin-like proteins. On the other hand, detailed analysis of the pre-mRNA processing sites revealed some similarities but also some differences in the spliced leader and different polyadenylation addition sites compared to close related kinetoplastid parasites. Our results also confirm that transcription is bidirectional as occur in other kinetoplastids and the proportion of forward-sense and reverse-sense transcripts is almost equivalent, demonstrating that a strand-specificity does not exist.

Degradation of GRK2 and AKT is an early and detrimental event in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion
Petronila Penela, Javier Inserte, Paula Ramos, Antonio Rodríguez-Sinovas, David García-Dorado, Federico Mayor Jr.

Background: Identification of signaling pathways altered at early stages after cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is crucial to develop timely therapies aimed at reducing I/R injury. The expression of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2), a key signaling hub, is up-regulated in the long-term in patients and in experimental models of heart failure. However, whether GRK2 levels change at early time points following myocardial I/R and its functional impact during this period remain to be established. Methods: We have investigated the temporal changes of GRK2 expression and their potential relation-ships with the cardioprotective AKT pathway in isolated rat hearts and porcine preclinical models of I/R. Findings: Contrary to the maladaptive up-regulation of GRK2 reported at later times after myocardial infarction, successive GRK2 phosphorylation at specific sites during ischemia and early reperfusion elic-its GRK2 degradation by the proteasome and calpains, respectively, thus keeping GRK2 levels low during early I/R in rat hearts. Concurrently, I/R promotes decay of the prolyl-isomerase Pin1, a positive regulator of AKT stability, and a marked loss of total AKT protein, resulting in an overall decreased activity of this pro-survival pathway. A similar pattern of concomitant down-modulation of GRK2/AKT/Pin1 protein levels in early I/R was observed in pig hearts. Calpain and proteasome inhibition prevents GRK2/Pin1/AKT degra-dation, restores bulk AKT pathway activity and attenuates myocardial I/R injury in isolated rat hearts. Interpretation: Preventing transient degradation of GRK2 and AKT during early I/R might improve the potential of endogenous cardioprotection mechanisms and of conditioning strategies.

The Molecular Clock in the Evolution of Protein Structures
Alberto Pascual-García, Miguel Arenas, Ugo Bastolla

The molecular clock hypothesis, which states that substitutions accumulate in protein sequences at a constant rate, plays a fundamental role in molecular evolution but it is violated when selective or mutational processes vary with time. Such violations of the molecular clock have been widely investigated for protein sequences, but not yet for protein structures. Here, we introduce a novel statistical test (Significant Clock Violations) and perform a large scale assessment of the molecular clock in the evolution of both protein sequences and structures in three large superfamilies. After validating our method with computer simulations, we find that clock violations are generally consistent in sequence and structure evolution, but they tend to be larger and more significant in structure evolution. Moreover, changes of function assessed through Gene Ontology and InterPro terms are associated with large and significant clock violations in structure evolution. We found that almost one third of significant clock violations are significant in structure evolution but not in sequence evolution, highlighting the advantage to use structure information for assessing accelerated evolution and gathering hints of positive selection. Clock violations between closely related pairs are frequently significant in sequence evolution, consistent with the observed time dependence of the substitution rate attributed to segregation of neutral and slightly deleterious polymorphisms, but not in structure evolution, suggesting that these substitutions do not affect protein structure although they may affect stability. These results are consistent with the view that natural selection, both negative and positive, constrains more strongly protein structures than protein sequences. Our code for computing clock violations is freely available at

Genetic deficiency or pharmacological inhibition of miR-33 protects from kidney fibrosis
Nathan L. Price, Verónica Miguel, Wen Ding, Abhishek K. Singh, Shipra Malik, Noemi Rotllan, Anna Moshnikova, Jakub Toczek, Caroline Zeiss, Mehran M. Sadeghi, Noemi Arias, Ángel Baldán, Oleg A. Andreev, Diego Rodríguez-Puyol, Raman Bahal, Yana K. Reshetnyak, Yajaira Suárez, Carlos Fernández-Hernando, Santiago Lamas

Previous work has reported the important links between cellular bioenergetics and the development of chronic kidney disease, highlighting the potential for targeting metabolic functions to regulate disease progression. More recently, it has been shown that alterations in fatty acid oxidation (FAO) can have an important impact on the progression of kidney disease. In this work, we demonstrate that loss of miR-33, an important regulator of lipid metabolism, can partially prevent the repression of FAO in fibrotic kidneys and reduce lipid accumulation. These changes were associated with a dramatic reduction in the extent of fibrosis induced in 2 mouse models of kidney disease. These effects were not related to changes in circulating leukocytes because bone marrow transplants from miR-33–deficient animals did not have a similar impact on disease progression. Most important, targeted delivery of miR-33 peptide nucleic acid inhibitors to the kidney and other acidic microenvironments was accomplished using pH low insertion peptides as a carrier. This was effective at both increasing the expression of factors involved in FAO and reducing the development of fibrosis. Together, these findings suggest that miR-33 may be an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of chronic kidney disease.

IL-7R is essential for leukemia-initiating cell activity of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia
Sara González-García , Marta Mosquera , Patricia Fuentes , Tiziana Palumbo , Adela Escudero , Antonio Pérez-Martínez , Manuel Ramírez , Anne E. Corcoran , Maria L. Toribio

T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive hematological malignancy resulting from the dysregulation of signaling pathways that control intrathymic T-cell development. Relapse rates are still significant, and prognosis is particularly bleak for relapsed patients. Therefore, development of novel therapies specifically targeting pathways controlling leukemia-initiating cell (LIC) activity is mandatory for fighting refractory T-ALL. The interleukin-7 receptor (IL-7R) is a crucial T-cell developmental pathway that is commonly expressed in T-ALL and has been implicated in leukemia progression; however, the significance of IL-7R/IL-7 signaling in T-ALL pathogenesis and its contribution to disease relapse remain unknown. To directly explore whether IL-7R targeting may be therapeutically efficient against T-ALL relapse, we focused on a known Notch1-induced T-ALL model, because a majority of T-ALL patients harbor activating mutations in NOTCH1, which is a transcriptional regulator of IL-7R expression. Using loss-of-function approaches, we show that Il7r-deficient, but not wild-type, mouse hematopoietic progenitors transduced with constitutively active Notch1 failed to generate leukemia upon transplantation into immunodeficient mice, thus providing formal evidence that IL-7R function is essential for Notch1-induced T-cell leukemogenesis. Moreover, we demonstrate that IL-7R expression is an early functional biomarker of T-ALL cells with LIC potential and report that impaired IL-7R signaling hampers engraftment and progression of patient-derived T-ALL xenografts. Notably, we show that IL-7R–dependent LIC activity and leukemia progression can be extended to human B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). These results have important therapeutic implications, highlighting the relevance that targeting normal IL-7R signaling may have in future therapeutic interventions, particularly for preventing T-ALL (and B-ALL) relapse.

Exploiting the passenger ACO1-deficiency arising from 9p21 deletions to kill T-cell lymphoblastic neoplasia cells
Laura González-Sánchez, María A Cobos-Fernández, Pilar López-Nieva, María Villa-Morales, Konstantinos Stamatakis, José M Cuezva, José L Marín-Rubio, Irene Vázquez-Domínguez, Iria González-Vasconcellos, Eduardo Salido, Pilar Llamas, José L López-Lorenzo, Javier Santos, José Fernández-Piqueras

Precursor T-cell lymphoblastic neoplasms are aggressive malignancies in need for more effective and specific therapeutic treatments. A significant fraction of these neoplasms harbor deletions on the locus 9p21, targeting the tumor suppressor CDKN2A but also deleting the aconitase 1 (ACO1) gene, a neighboring housekeeping gene involved in cytoplasm and mitochondrial metabolism. Here we show that reducing the aconitase activity with fluorocitrate decreases the viability of T-cell lymphoblastic neoplasia cells in correlation to the differential aconitase expression. The consequences of the treatment were evidenced in vitro using T-cell lymphoblastic neoplasia cell lines exhibiting 9p21 deletions and variable levels of ACO1 expression or activity. Similar results were observed in melanoma cell lines, suggesting a true potential for fluorocitrate in different cancer types. Notably, ectopic expression of ACO1 alleviated the susceptibility of cell lines to fluorocitrate and, conversely, knockdown experiments increased susceptibility of resistant cell lines. These findings were confirmed in vivo on athymic nude mice by using tumor xenografts derived from two T-cell lines with different levels of ACO1. Taken together, our results indicate that the non-targeted ACO1 deficiency induced by common deletions exerts a collateral cellular lethality that can be used as a novel therapeutic strategy in the treatment of several types of cancer.

Cooperation of axial and sex specific information controls Drosophila female genitalia growth by regulating the Decapentaplegic pathway
Jesús Romero-Pozuelo, David Foronda, Paloma Martín, Bruno Hudry, Samir Merabet, Yacine Graba, Ernesto Sánchez-Herrero

The specification and morphogenesis of an organ requires the coordinate deployment and integration of regulatory information, including sex specific information when the organ is sex specific. Only a few gene networks controlling size and pattern development have been deciphered, which limits the emergence of principles, general or not, underlying the organ-specifying gene networks. Here we elucidate the genetic and molecular network determining the control of size in the Drosophila abdominal A9 primordium, contributing to the female genitalia. This network requires axial regulatory information provided by the Hox protein Abdominal-BR (Abd-BR), the Hox cofactors Extradenticle (Exd) and Homothorax (Hth), and the sex specific transcription factor Doublesex Female (DsxF). These factors synergize to control size in the female A9 by the coordinate regulation of the Decapentaplegic (Dpp) growth pathway. Molecular dissection of the dpp regulatory region and in vivo protein interaction experiments suggest that Abd-BR, Exd, Hth and DsxF coordinately regulate a short dpp enhancer to repress dpp expression and restrict female A9 size. The same regulators can also suppress dpp expression in the A8, but this requires the absence of the Abd-BM isoform, which specifies A8. These results delineate the network controlling female A9 growth in Drosophila.

Drosophila Zic family member odd-paired is needed for adult post-ecdysis maturation
Eléanor Simon, Sergio Fernández de la Puebla, Isabel Guerrero

Specific neuropeptides regulate in arthropods the shedding of the old cuticle (ecdysis) followed by maturation of the new cuticle. In Drosophila melanogaster, the last ecdysis occurs at eclosion from the pupal case, with a post-eclosion behavioural sequence that leads to wing extension, cuticle stretching and tanning. These events are highly stereotyped and are controlled by a subset of crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) neurons through the expression of the neuropeptide Bursicon (Burs). We have studied the role of the transcription factor Odd-paired (Opa) during the post-eclosion period. We report that opa is expressed in the CCAP neurons of the central nervous system during various steps of the ecdysis process and in peripheral CCAP neurons innerving the larval muscles involved in adult ecdysis. We show that its downregulation alters Burs expression in the CCAP neurons. Ectopic expression of Opa, or the vertebrate homologue Zic2, in the CCAP neurons also affects Burs expression, indicating an evolutionary functional conservation. Finally, our results show that, independently of its role in Burs regulation, Opa prevents death of CCAP neurons during larval development.

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