CD9 inhibition reveals a functional connection of extracellular vesicle secretion with mitophagy in melanoma cells
Henar Suárez, Zoraida Andreu, Carla Mazzeo, Víctor Toribio, Aldo Emmanuel Pérez-Rivera, Soraya López-Martín, Susana García-Silva, Begoña Hurtado, Esperanza Morato, Laura Peláez, Egoitz Astigarraga Arribas, Tarson Tolentino-Cortez, Gabriel Barreda-Gómez, Ana Isabel Marina, Héctor Peinado, María Yáñez-Mó
Tetraspanins are often used as Extracellular Vesicle (EV) detection markers because of their abundance on these secreted vesicles. However, data on their function on EV biogenesis are controversial and compensatory mechanisms often occur upon gene deletion. To overcome this handicap, we have compared the effects of tetraspanin CD9 gene deletion with those elicited by cytopermeable peptides with blocking properties against tetraspanin CD9. Both CD9 peptide or gene deletion reduced the number of early endosomes. CD9 peptide induced an increase in lysosome numbers, while CD9 deletion augmented the number of MVB and EV secretion, probably because of compensatory CD63 expression upregulation. In vivo, CD9 peptide delayed primary tumour cell growth and reduced metastasis size. These effects on cell proliferation were shown to be concomitant with an impairment in mitochondrial quality control. CD9 KO cells were able to compensate the mitochondrial malfunction by increasing total mitochondrial mass reducing mitophagy. Our data thus provide the first evidence for a functional connection of tetraspanin CD9 with mitophagy in melanoma cells.
Generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species is controlled by ATPase inhibitory factor 1 and regulates cognition
Pau B. Esparza-Moltó,Inés Romero-Carramiñana,Cristina Núñez de Arenas,Marta P. Pereira,Noelia Blanco,Beatriz Pardo,Georgina R. Bates,Carla Sánchez-Castillo,Rafael Artuch,Michael P. Murphy,José A. Esteban,José M. Cuezva
The mitochondrial ATP synthase emerges as key hub of cellular functions controlling the production of ATP, cellular signaling, and fate. It is regulated by the ATPase inhibitory factor 1 (IF1), which is highly abundant in neurons. Herein, we ablated or overexpressed IF1 in mouse neurons to show that IF1 dose defines the fraction of active/inactive enzyme in vivo, thereby controlling mitochondrial function and the production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS). Transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic analyses indicate that IF1 dose regulates mitochondrial metabolism, synaptic function, and cognition. Ablation of IF1 impairs memory, whereas synaptic transmission and learning are enhanced by IF1 overexpression. Mechanistically, quenching the IF1-mediated increase in mtROS production in mice overexpressing IF1 reduces the increased synaptic transmission and obliterates the learning advantage afforded by the higher IF1 content. Overall, IF1 plays a key role in neuronal function by regulating the fraction of ATP synthase responsible for mitohormetic mtROS signaling.
Yolanda Gutiérrez, Sergio López-García, Argentina Lario, Silvia Gutiérrez-Eisman, Cédric Delevoye, José A. Esteban
The regulated trafficking of AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) from dendritic compartments to the synaptic membrane in response to neuronal activity is a core mechanism for long-term potentiation (LTP). However, the contribution of the microtubule cytoskeleton to this synaptic transport is still unknown. In this work, using electrophysiological, biochemical, and imaging techniques, we have found that one member of the kinesin-3 family of motor proteins, KIF13A, is specifically required for the delivery of AMPARs to the spine surface during LTP induction. Accordingly, KIF13A depletion from hippocampal slices abolishes LTP expression. We also identify the vesicular protein centaurin-α1 as part of a motor transport machinery that is engaged with KIF13A and AMPARs upon LTP induction. Finally, we determine that KIF13A is responsible for the remodeling of Rab11-FIP2 endosomal structures in the dendritic shaft during LTP. Overall, these results identify specific kinesin molecular motors and endosomal transport machinery that catalyzes the dendrite-to-synapse translocation of AMPA receptors during synaptic plasticity.
Structural Determinants of the Neuronal Glycine Transporter 2 for the Selective Inhibitors ALX1393 and ORG25543
Cristina Benito-Muñoz, Almudena Perona, Raquel Felipe, Gonzalo Pérez-Siles, Enrique Núñez, Carmen Aragón, and Beatriz López-Corcuera
The neuronal glycine transporter GlyT2 modulates inhibitory glycinergic neurotransmission by controlling the extracellular concentration of synaptic glycine and the supply of neurotransmitter to the presynaptic terminal. Spinal cord glycinergic neurons present in the dorsal horn diminish their activity in pathological pain conditions and behave as gate keepers of the touch-pain circuitry. The pharmacological blockade of GlyT2 reduces the progression of the painful signal to rostral areas of the central nervous system by increasing glycine extracellular levels, so it has analgesic action. O-[(2-benzyloxyphenyl-3-fluorophenyl)methyl]-l-serine (ALX1393) and N-[[1-(dimethylamino)cyclopentyl]methyl]-3,5-dimethoxy-4-(phenylmethoxy)benzamide (ORG25543) are two selective GlyT2 inhibitors with nanomolar affinity for the transporter and analgesic effects in pain animal models, although with deficiencies which preclude further clinical development. In this report, we performed a comparative ligand docking of ALX1393 and ORG25543 on a validated GlyT2 structural model including all ligand sites constructed by homology with the crystallized dopamine transporter from Drosophila melanogaster. Molecular dynamics simulations and energy analysis of the complex and functional analysis of a series of point mutants permitted to determine the structural determinants of ALX1393 and ORG25543 discrimination by GlyT2. The ligands establish simultaneous contacts with residues present in transmembrane domains 1, 3, 6, and 8 and block the transporter in outward-facing conformation and hence inhibit glycine transport. In addition, differential interactions of ALX1393 with the cation bound at Na1 site and ORG25543 with TM10 define the differential sites of the inhibitors and explain some of their individual features. Structural information about the interactions with GlyT2 may provide useful tools for new drug discovery.
Lorena Buono, Jorge Corbacho, Silvia Naranjo, María Almuedo-Castillo, Tania Moreno-Marmol, Berta de la Cerda, Estefanía Sanbria-Reinoso, Rocío Polvillo, Francisco-Javier Díaz-Corrales, Ozren Bogdanovic, Paola Bovolenta & Juan-Ramón Martínez-Morales
Sight depends on the tight cooperation between photoreceptors and pigmented cells, which derive from common progenitors through the bifurcation of a single gene regulatory network into the neural retina (NR) and retinal-pigmented epithelium (RPE) programs. Although genetic studies have identified upstream nodes controlling these networks, their regulatory logic remains poorly investigated. Here, we characterize transcriptome dynamics and chromatin accessibility in segregating NR/RPE populations in zebrafish. We analyze cis-regulatory modules and enriched transcription factor motives to show extensive network redundancy and context-dependent activity. We identify downstream targets, highlighting an early recruitment of desmosomal genes in the flattening RPE and revealing Tead factors as upstream regulators. We investigate the RPE specification network dynamics to uncover an unexpected sequence of transcription factors recruitment, which is conserved in humans. This systematic interrogation of the NR/RPE bifurcation should improve both genetic counseling for eye disorders and hiPSCs-to-RPE differentiation protocols for cell-replacement therapies in degenerative diseases.
Jorge Oller, Enrique Gabandé-Rodríguez, María Jesús Ruiz-Rodríguez, Gabriela Desdín-Micó, Juan Francisco Aranda, Raquel Rodrigues-Diez, Constanza Ballesteros-Martínez, Eva María Blanco, Raquel Roldan-Montero, Pedro Acuña, Alberto Forteza Gil, Carlos E Martín-López, J Francisco Nistal, Christian L Lino Cardenas, Mark Evan Lindsay, José Luís Martín-Ventura, Ana M Briones, Juan Miguel Redondo, María Mittelbrunn
The main canonical pathways highlighted in the transcriptomic analysis in aortas from Fbn1c1039g/+ mice were those related to metabolic function, such as mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondrial complexes, whose transcription depends on Tfam and mitochondrial DNA content, were reduced in aortas from young Fbn1c1039g/+ mice. In vitro experiments in Fbn1-silenced VSMCs presented increased lactate production and decreased oxygen consumption. Similar results were found in MFS patients. VSMCs seeded in matrices produced by Fbn1-deficient VSMCs undergo mitochondrial dysfunction. Conditional Tfam-deficient VSMC mice lose their contractile capacity, showed aortic aneurysms, and died prematurely. Restoring mitochondrial metabolism with the NAD precursor nicotinamide riboside rapidly reverses aortic aneurysm in Fbn1c1039g/+ mice.